تولید حیوانات تراریخت با بهره مندی از فناوری‌های نوین تولید مثل: میکرواینجکشن، الکتروپوریشن و انتقال هسته

نوع مقاله: مقاله مروری

نویسنده

بخش تحقیق، پرورش و تولید حیوانات آزمایشگاهی، موسسه تحقیقات واکسن و سرم سازی رازی، سازمان تحقیقات، آموزش و ترویج کشاورزی، کرج، ایران.

چکیده

فناوری‌های تولید حیوانات تراریخت به عنوان یکی از زمینه‌های تحقیقاتی در شاخه زیست‌فناوری به حساب می‌آید که در دهه‌ی اخیر از سرعت رشد بسیار زیادی برخوردار شده است. حیوانات تراریخت در حقیقت نوعی از حیوانات هستند که به‌واسطه پیشرفت و ترکیب روش‌های نوین تولید برون تنی رویان و مهندسی ژنتیک، حامل قطعه ای از ژنوم موجودی از گونه جانوری دیگر یا انسانی هستند. شایان ذکر است که صرفا به واسطه‌ی انتقال ژن و یا ژن‌هایی از یک گونه به گونه‌ای دیگر، نمی‌توان ادعا نمود که حیوان تراریخت تولید شده است. در حقیقت پس از افزودن ماده ژنتیکی جدید به ژنوم موجود پذیرنده می‌بایست توانایی انتقال آن ژن به نسل بعد در حیوان پذیرنده ایجاد شده باشد و همچنین محصول بیانی آن ژن نیز می‌بایست به شکل کامل و به صورتی که عملکرد فیزیولوژیک آن ژن حفظ شده باشد قابل شناسایی و استحصال باشد. در این مقاله مروری به بررسی مهمترین روش های استفاده شده در تولید حیوانات تراریخته پرداخته شده است.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Production of transgenic animal: Microinjection, electroporation, and nuclear transfer

نویسنده [English]

  • Navid Dadashpour Davachi
Department of Research, Breeding and Production of Laboratory Animals, Razi Vaccine and Serum Research Institute, Agricultural Research, Education and Extension Organization (AREEO), Karaj, Iran.
چکیده [English]

The technology of transgenic animals' production is one of the areas of research in the biotechnology branch, which has a very fast growth rate in the last decade. To current knowledge, several methods have been developed for the production of transgenic animals such as microinjection of the desired genetic structure into the male pre-core in Zygote, gene transfer using embryonic stem cells transmission to the embryos during the blastocyst stage, gene transfer by sperm and using the new and workable CRISPER/Cas9 method. The key to success in the production of transgenic animals is the optimization of gene transfer method and the exact expression of the transmitted gene. A number of new technologies have been presented in the field of gene transfer in recent decades, which have reduced both research and production costs and improved the speed and delicacy of transmission processes. In the present review the most common methods in the production of transgenes would be discussed.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Transgenic Animal
  • Animal model
  • Electroporation
  • Micro-injection
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