مروری بر پرکاربردترین ترکیبات موثره گیاهان دارویی و ساز و کار اثرات آنها بر پارامترهای رشد، سلامت و تولید در صنعت طیور

نوع مقاله: مقاله مروری

نویسندگان

شعبه مشهد، پژوهشگاه بیوتکنولوژی کشاورزی ایران، سازمان تحقیقات، آموزش و ترویج کشاورزی، مشهد، ایران

چکیده

از ترکیبات موثره گیاهی که بر پایه فنول‌ها و ترپن‌ها بوده و در صنعت دام و طیور کاربرد فراوانی دارند می‌توان به تایمول (Thymol)، کارواکرول (Carvacrol)، ﺳﻴﻨﺌﻮﻝ (Cineole)، آلفا-پینن (pinene-α)، منتول (Menthol) و منتون (Menthone) اشاره نمود. این ترکیبات بیشتر در روغن‌های فرار گیاهان خانواده نعناعیان به ویژه آویشن باغی، نعنا، و رزماری یافت شده و با داشتن خواص هم افزایی از پتانسیل آنتی‌اکسیدانی، ضدباکتری، ضدویروسی، ضدالتهابی، ضدافسردگی و تقویت‌کننده سیستم ایمنی برخوردارند. آن‌ها از طریق افزایش ترشح شیرابه گوارشی، افزایش ترشح آنزیم‌های گوارشی و در نتیجه بهبود هضم، فعال کردن ساز و کار‌های انتقال سطح جذب مواد مغذی، ممانعت از فرایند‌های اکسیداسیون، ممانعت از رشد باکتری‌ها، قارچ‌ها و انگل‌ها در دستگاه گوارش، ایجاد ثبات در جمعیت میکروفلور روده و افزایش سطح سیستم ایمنی در دام و طیور موثر هستند. مجموعه این اثرات فیزیولوژیک منجر به بهبود عملکرد دستگاه گوارش، بهبود عملکرد رشد، کاهش تلفات، بهبود کیفیت تولید (طعم، رنگ، بافت، ماندگاری، خواص زیستی) و بهبود شرایط محیطی (کاهش بوی نامطبوع و گازهای سمی) در دام و طیور خواهد شد. با توجه به تاثیر این گیاهان دارویی در تولید و سلامت دام و طیور، ضروری است تا از این منابع با ارزش در راستای بهبود راندمان تولید و کاهش مصرف داروهای شیمیایی در صنعت پرورش دام و طیور بهره برد.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

A review of the most widely used medicinal plant active compounds and their effects on growth, health and production parameters in the poultry industry

نویسندگان [English]

  • ehsan oskoueian
  • marzieh dalir
Mashhad Branch, Agricultural Biotechnology Research Institute of Iran (ABRII), Agricultural Research, Education, and Extension Organization (AREEO), Mashhad, Iran
چکیده [English]

Thymol, carvacrol, cineole, alpha-pinene, menthol, and menthone are among the most common and effective phenols and terpenes which are widely used in the livestock and poultry industry. These compounds are found in the essential oils of the plant belonging to the Lamiaceae family, especially thyme, mint, and rosemary. These compounds possess synergistic effects and appeared to be potent as an anti-oxidant, antibacterial, antiviral, anti-inflammatory, anti-depressant, and immunomodulatory agents. These bioactive compounds increase the digestive tract enzymes secretion and thereby improve digestion, activate variety of intestinal nutrient transport, inhibit oxidation processes, inhibit the growth of bacteria, fungi, and parasites in the digestive system, modulate the intestinal microbial population, and improve the immune system function in the livestock and poultry. These physiological mechanisms have led to the improvement of digestive function, growth performance, weight gain and feed conversion ratio, increased production, reduced mortality, improved production quality (taste, color, texture, shelf-life, biological value) and improved environmental conditions (reducing unpleasant smells and toxic gases) in the poultry and livestock. With regard to the mentioned beneficial impact of plant bioactive compounds in production and health of poultry and livestock animals, it is necessary to use these valuable resources to improve the production efficiency and reduce the use of chemical drugs in the livestock and poultry husbandry.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Secondary metabolites
  • essential oil
  • Antioxidant Properties
  • Nutrition
  • Phytobiotic
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