مروری بر آناپلاسموزیس و وضعیت شیوع آناپلاسما مارجیناله در گاوهای ایران و جهان

نوع مقاله: مقاله مروری

نویسنده

بخش تحقیقات دامپزشکی، مرکز تحقیقات و آموزش کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی استان اصفهان، ایران

چکیده

آناپلاسموزیس بیماری است که از طریق کنه منتقل می‌شود و عامل مسبب آن گونه‌های مختلف آناپلاسما می‌باشند. آناپلاسما مارجیناله با اهمیت‌ترین گونه از نظر دامپزشکی در خانواده آناپلاسماتاسه‌آ می‌باشد. بیماری از شایع‌ترین انگل‌های خونی گاو است و در مناطق گرمسیری، نیمه گرمسیری و اغلب مناطق معتدل جهان همه‌گیر می‌باشد. تهاجم و تکثیر آناپلاسما مارجیناله در گلبول‌های قرمز گاو باعث کم خونی، از دست دادن وزن و سقط و در فرم حاد در برخی موارد باعث مرگ حیوان می‌شود. آناپلاسما مارجیناله بصورت بیولوژیکی از طریق کنه و با انتقال خون آلوده توسط گزش مگس‌های خونخوار یا وسایل آلوده بصورت مکانیکی منتقل می‌شود. در برخی از مناطق انتقال آناپلاسما مارجیناله از طریق جفت نیز به اپیدمیولوژی آناپلاسموزیس گاوی کمک می‌کند. بر اساس مطالعات اخیر انجام شده در ایران در حدود یک چهارم گاوهای مورد مطالعه از نظر آناپلاسما مارجیناله مثبت ارزیابی شده‌اند. علی‌رغم اهمیت جهانی، در ایران هنوز در تشخیص و درمان، این بیماری نادیده گرفته می‌شود. بعلت ضعف در تشخیص و گزارش بیماری، اطلاعات پایشی در خصوص این بیماری در ایران محدود می‌باشد. این مقاله با توجه خاص به شیوع بیماری در ایران و جهان، مطالب علمی در خصوص آناپلاسموزیس را مرور کرده است تا به دامپزشکان در تفریق، تشخیص و درمان بیماری کمک نماید.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

A review of anaplasmosis and the prevalence of Anaplasma marginale in cattle in Iran and the world

نویسنده [English]

  • Vahid Noaman
Veterinary Research Department, Isfahan Agriculture and Natural resources Research and Education Center, AREEO, Isfahan, Iran.
چکیده [English]

Anaplasmosis is a tick-borne disease caused by the Anaplasma spp.. A. marginale is the most important species of vererinary in the family Anaplasmataceae. The disease is the most prevalent of bovine hemoparasite infections and is endemic in tropical, subtropical and certain temperate areas of the world. Invasion and multiplication of A. marginale in erythrocytes of cattle may result in anemia, weight loss, abortion, and sometimes death during acute infections. A. marginale is transmitted biologically by ticks and mechanically by blood-contaminated mouthparts of biting flies or fomites. Transplacental transmission of A. marginale may contribute to the epidemiology of bovine anaplasmosis in some regions. According to the recent studies in Iran, approximately a quarter of the examined cattle have been positive for A. marginale. In spite of the global importance, in Iran the disease is still often overlooked in diagnosis and treatment. There is little surveillance information about this disease in Iran due to poor recognition and report. This paper reviews the literature on anaplasmosis with special attention to the prevalence of the disease in Iran and the world to help veterinarians differentiate, diagnose, and treat this disease.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Anaplasmosis
  • Anaplasma marginale
  • Cattle
  • Tick
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