اثر میدان الکتریکی و شوری بر رفتار ماهی کپور معمولی (Cyprinus carpio) در مقابل تله ماهی‌گیری

نوع مقاله: مقاله کامل

نویسندگان

1 عضو هیئت علمی مرکز آموزش و تحقیقات جهاد کشاورزی گیلان

2 دانشجوی کارشناسی ارشد

3 استادیار و عضو هیأت علمی

4 عضو هیات علمی دانشگاه غیر انتفاعی رودکی تنکابن

چکیده

ماهیگیری الکتریکی یکی از روش‌های مورد استفاده جهت نمونه برداری‌های تحقیقاتی از گونه‌های آبزیان در محیط‌های آب شیرین و رودخانه‌ای می‌باشد. همچنین در محیط‌های دریایی استفاده از میدان‌های الکتریکی جهت کاهش صید ضمنی و افزایش هدفمند فعالیت‌های صیادی بخصوص گونه‌های کفزیان متداول می‌باشد. شدت جریان الکتریکی و عوامل محیطی مثل غلظت شوری می‌تواند اثرات متفاوتی بر ماهی‌ها داشته باشد. بنابراین بررسی تغییرات رفتاری و اثرات فیزیکی احتمالی استفاده از جریان‌های الکتریسیته بر روی گونه‌های ماهیان هم از نظر زیست شناسی گونه‌ها و هم از جنبه تغییرات پراکنش جمعیت گونه‌های صید اهمیت زیادی دارد. مطالعه‌ی حاضر با هدف بررسی تغییرات رفتار‌ی ماهی کپور معمولی پرورشی (Cyprinus carpio) در استخرهای آزمایشی و ایجاد میدان الکتریکی با ولتاژهای متغیر در میزان شوری آب متفاوت، در مقابل تله ماهیگیری انجام شد. با توجه به قدرت و نوع میدان در آب با رسانایی و درجه شوری متفاوت واکنش‌های رفتاری ماهی کپور از جمله فاصله گرفتن از منبع جریان الکتریکی، واکنش ترس، تشنج و در نهایت مرگ و میر ماهی‌ها زمانی که در محیط آزمایشی بودند بررسی شد. تیمارهای الکتریکی در این تحقیق ولتاژهای 240، 225، 210، 195، 180، 165، 150،135، 120، 105و90 ولت در چهار غلظت شوری (0، 2، 4 و 8 گرم در لیتر) بود. نتایج این تحقیق نشان داد که افزایش میزان شوری از (8-0) گرم در لیتر تاثیری در میزان فاصله ی ماهی کپور از منبع جریان نداشته است در حالی که با افزایش میزان ولتاژ تاثیر معنی‌داری روی فاصله ماهی از منبع جریان مشاهده شده است. همچنین در تمام میزان شوری‌های مورد بررسی حداکثر میزان تشنج در ماهی کپوردر ولتاژهای بالاتر از 150 ولت مشاهده شد. مرگ ومیر در ولتاژهای بالا بویژه 225 به بالا قابل مشاهده بوده. مطالعات بیشتر تکمیلی رفتارشناسی و بررسی اثرات احتمالی آلاینده‌های محیطی حاصل از فعالیت‌های انسانی شامل میدان الکتریکی حاصل از مکانیزاسیون استخرهای پرورش ماهی و فعالیت‌های صید و صیادی بر روی تغییرات رفتار، فعالیت‌ها و عکس‌العمل ماهیان در محیط‌های پرورشی و همچنین در برابر تله‌های ماهیگیری صید صنعتی پیشنهاد می‌شود. همچنین بررسی اثرات احتمالی آلاینده‌های زیستی در سطوح جمعیتی مختلف و بازخوردهای اکولوژیکی آلاینده‌ها نیازمند مطالعات آزمایشگاهی و میدانی بیشتر بر روی گونه‌های مختلف ماهی می‌باشد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Impact of electric field exposure and salinity on behaviour of common carp (Cyprinus carpio) during entanglement of fishing gear

نویسندگان [English]

  • B. Aminian Fatideh 1
  • N. Golmohammadi Manjili 2
  • S. Shafiee Sabet 3
  • N. Vahdati 3
  • M.V. Jafari 4
1 Fisheries Technology Development, Mirza Kouchak Vocation and Higher Education Center for Fisheries Sciences and Technology, Guilan, Iran;
2 M.Sc. Student
3 Associate Prof. and Member of Scientific Board;
4 Member of Scientific Board of Roudaki Non-profit University of Tonekabon.
چکیده [English]

Electric fishing is one of the research methods used for sampling of aquatic species in freshwater and riverine habitats. Also in the marine environment using electric fields to reduce by-catch species and increase targeted fishing activities specially is a common useful method on particular for benthoses species. Electric current density and environmental factors such as water salinity can have different effects on fish species. Therefore, the study of behavioral changes and possible physical effects of electrical currents on fish species are important in terms of biological aspects and changes in population distribution for target prey species. The present study aimed to investigate changes in behavior of common carp (Cyprinus carpio) in experimental pond condition using a variable voltage electric field in different water salinity during entanglement of fishing gear. Common carp behavioral reactions in response to the strength and conductivity of the electric field in the water with different salinity and temperature such as distance from the source of electric current, fear reactions, convulsions and ultimately death of the fish when they were in the test environment were measured. In this study electric field treatments include a range of voltages 240, 225, 210, 195, 180, 165, 150,135, 120, 105 and 90 V in four water salinity levels (0, 2, 4 and 8 g/l) , respectively. The results showed that an increasing of water salinity (0-8) g /l does not have a significant effect on the distance of carp from the electric source. While, the increase in voltage has significant impact on the distance of carp from the electric source. Also in all water salinity treatments the maximum convulsion has been recorded in voltages higher than 150 volts. Mortality was observed at higher voltages above 225 v. Further complementary behavioural studies are needed to investigate potential effects of anthropogenic environmental pollutions including electric fields, produced by commercial fish pond mechanization and fisheries gear developments on fish species behavioural changes in both growing ponds and commercial fisheries activities. Moreover, we suggest that to understand the effects of environmental pollutions at the community levels require more laboratory and field experiments on many fish species at individual levels.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Behavioral study
  • common carp
  • Electric fishing
  • Salinity
  • Fishing gear
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