مروری بر عفونت اورنیتوباکتریوم رینوتراکئال، علائم، بیماری‌زایی و اهمیت آن در صنعت طیور ایران

نوع مقاله: مقاله مروری

نویسنده

عضو هیات علمی موسسه تحقیقات واکسن و سرم‌سازی رازی، سازمان تحقیقات، آموزش و ترویج کشاورزی

چکیده

عفونت اورنیتوباکتریوم رینوتراکئال (ORT) یک بیماری مسری باکتریایی پرندگان و به طور عمده در ماکیان و بوقلمون است که موجب اختلال تنفسی، تلفات و حذف کشتارگاهی شده و سالیانه خسارات سنگینی در سراسر دنیا به صنعت طیور وارد می‌نماید. علائم بیماری در عفونت‌های طبیعی و تجربی ORT، آلودگی‌های همزمان با سایر عوامل بیماری‌زای طیور، بیماری‌زایی و همچنین اهمیت بیماری از نظر اقتصادی و بهداشت عمومی مرور شده و مورد تحلیل قرار گرفته است. علائم تنفسی نظیر پنومونی، علائم عصبی، کاهش رشد، افت تولید تخم مرغ و آسیت از جمله علائم مشاهده شده در ایران است. وجود قالب چرکی در نای و نایژه‌ها و تلفات در عفونت طبیعی و تجربی ORT به همراه ویروس آنفلوانزای H9N2 در ایران دیده شده است. در صورتی‌که درآلوده سازی تجربی ویروس به تنهایی علائم بالینی شدید و تلفاتی دیده نشد. اورنیتوباکتریوز در نژادهای مختلف ماکیان ایران و همچنین در بوقلمون‌ها با شیوع بالایی گزارش شده است. بیماری‌زایی سویه‌های ORT متفاوت بوده و امکان بروز سویه‌های با حدت بالاتر‌، همواره بایستی مورد توجه قرار گیرد. مطالعات محدودی در خصوص عوامل حدت این باکتری نظیر مکانیزم غیر سیدروفوری کسب آهن، فعالیت آنزیم نورامینیداز و پروتئین شبه همولیزین انجام شده است. برای مقابله با بیماری، واکسیناسیون با واکسن اتوژن، درمان دارویی بر اساس آنتی بیوگرام و مدیریت استرس‌ها و عوامل بیماری‌زای همزمان، از جمله راه‌های مؤثر است. پایین آوردن سن کشتار در جوجه‌های گوشتی یکی دیگر از راه‌های مقابله با خسارت‌های ناشی از ORT است.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Infection of Ornithobacterium rhinotracheale (ORT) and its signs, importance and pathogenicity in the poultry industry of Iran: a review article

نویسنده [English]

  • M. Banani
Member of Sientific Board of Razi Vaccine and Serum Research Institute. Agricultural Research, Education and Extension Organization (AREEO), Tehran, Iran
چکیده [English]

Ornithobacterium rhinotracheale (ORT) infection is a contagious bacterial disease of avian species, primarily chickens and turkeys which associated with respiratory distress, mortality, and increased slaughter condemnation rates, and high economic losses in the poultry industry throughout the world annually. Signs seen in natural and experimental infections, simultaneous infections with other respiratory pathogens and public health and economic importance of the disease have been analyzed and reviewed in this article. Respiratory signs such as pneumonia, nervous signs, reduced growth, Egg drop and ascites have been observed in commercial chickens of Iran. Observation of purulent cast into the trachea and bronchi and heavy mortalities are common signs of natural and or experimental ORT and influenza virus H9N2 co-infection in Iran. This sign or any mortality was not seen in the case of influenza H9N2 virus experimental infection alone. ORT infection has been reported with high prevalence in various breeds of commercial chicken flocks and also in turkeys. Pathogenicity of ORT strains are not the same and so it is possible to emerge strains with high pathogenicity in poultry industry of Iran. Only a few works have described some of the virulence factors of this bacterium such as non-siderophores iron acquisition mechanisms, neurominidase enzymatic activity, and a hemolysin-like protein. To deal with the disease, some ways including vaccination by autogenous vaccine, drug treatment based on antibiogram and stresses and other pathogens management are effective. Lowering the slaughter age in broilers is another way to deal with the heavy losses caused by ORT infections.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Natural infection
  • experimental
  • pathogenicity
  • Ornithobacterium rhinotracheale
  • Iran poultry industry
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