باقیمانده‌های آلاینده‌های آلی کلره پایدار در بافت کبد شغال طلائی (Canis aureus) سواحل شمالی ایران

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی کارشناسی ارشد محیط زیست، دانشکده منابع طبیعی، دانشگاه تربیت مدرس

2 استاد گروه محیط زیست ، دانشکده منابع طبیعی، دانشگاه تربیت مدرس

3 استادیار محیط زیست ، دانشکده منابع طبیعی، دانشگاه تربیت مدرس

4 دانشجوی دکتری محیط زیست ، دانشکده منابع طبیعی ، دانشگاه تربیت مدرس

چکیده

نمونه های بافت کبد از شغال طلایی در شهرستان نور واقع در سواحل مرکزی استان مازندران جمع آوری شدند. میزان ترکیبات آلی کلره پایدار (POPs) از قبیل بی فنیل های پلی کلره (PCBs)، دی کلرودی فنیل تری کلرواتان (DDTs) و متابولیت هایش، هگزاکلرو سیکلوهگزان (HCHs) و متابولیت هایش، هگزاکلروبنزن (HCB)، آلدرین و دی آلدرین در بافت کبد توسط دستگاه GC-ECD تعیین شدند. بیشترین غلظت مربوط به ترکیب ng/g) PCBs 51/41 ± 13/58) و به دنبال آن ترکیبات ng/g) HCHs 88/10 ± 58/10)، ng/g) DDTs  17/6 ± 62/4)، ng/g) HCB 81/0 ± 60/0)، آلدرین(ng/g 78/0± 54/0) و دی آلدرین (g/g ww 18/0 ± 13/0) به ترتیب در رتبه های بعدی قرار داشتند. در این مطالعه از نمونه های تلفات جاده ای (Road-Killed) استفاده شده است. بین غلظت OCPs در جنس نر و ماده اختلاف معنی داری مشاهده نش (904/0> P > 095/0 ) و همچنین هیچ اختلاف معنی داری بین غلظت ترکیبات OCPs با طول بدن و وزن بدن مشاهده نشد. بطورکلی غلظت ترکیبات OCPs پایین تر از حدی بود که باعث اثرات مخرب بر حیوانات شود. 

عنوان مقاله [English]

Determination of persistent organic pollutants residues in liver of golden jackal (Canis aureus) collected from central coastline of Iran

نویسندگان [English]

  • H Malvandi 1
  • A Esmaili-Sari 2
  • N Bahramifar 3
  • S.M Ghasempouri 4
1 M. Sc. Student in Environment, Faculty of Natural Resources and Marine Sciences, Tarbiat Modares University
2 Professor, Faculty of Natural Resources and Marine Sciences, Tarbiat Modares University
3 Assistant Professor, Faculty of Natural Resources and Marine Sciences, Tarbiat Modares University
4 Assistant Professor, Faculty of Natural Resources and Marine Sciences, Tarbiat Modares University
چکیده [English]

  Liver samples from golden jackal (Canis aureus) were collected from Noor in the central coastline Mazandaran province. The samples of this study were killed in road accidents. Levels of persistent organochlorine pollutants (POPs) including polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), DDTs and metabolites, hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs) and metabolites, hexachlorobenzene (HCB), aldrin and dieldrin were measured in liver tissue samples by gas chromatography using electron capture detection (GC-ECD). The compound found at the highest concentration was PCBs (58.13  ±41.51 ng/g), followed by the contaminants  HCHs (10.58  ±10.88 ng/g), DDTs(4.62  ±6.17 ng/g), HCB (0.60  ±0.81 ng/g), Aldrin (0.54  ±0.78 ng/g) and Dieldrin (0.13  ±0.18 ng/g). There were no significant differences between sexes. Also no significant differences (0.095 < P < 0.904) were found between POPs levels in liver with weight and length of body. POPs levels were generally low; and do not approach levels that are known to potentially cause adverse effects in animals.

1- صادقی، س. ح، قاسمپوری س. م. و وفاخواه، ن. (1383) ارزیابی برخی از شاخص های کیفیت آب آشامیدنی در شهرستان نور، مازندران، فصلنامه محیط زیست پژوهشکده محیط زیست جهاد دانشگاهی، سال اول ،1: ص15. ##

2-Allen-Gil, S.M., Landers, D.H. Wade, T.L. Sericano, J.L. Lasosa, B.K. Crecelius, E.A. Curtis, L.R. (1997) Heavy Metal, Organochlorine pesticide and polychlorinated biphenyl contamination in Arctic Ground Squirrels (Spermophilus parryi) in Northern Alaska, Mamm. Biol, 50: 323– 333.##

3-Corsolini, S., Burrini, L. Focardi, S. and Lovari, S. (2000) How can we use the red fox as a bioindicator of organochlorines?, Arch.Environ.Contam.Toxicol., 39: 547-556.##

4-Corsoloni, S., Focardi, S. Leonzio,C. Lovari, S. Monaci, F. and Romeo, G. (1999) Heavy metals and chlorinated hydrocarbon concentrations in the red fox in relation to some biological parameters, Environ. Monit. Assess., 54: 87-100.##

5-Covaci, A., Hura, C. Gheorghe. A. Neels, H. and Dirtu, A.C. (2008) Organochlorine contaminants in hair of adolescents from Iassy, Romania, Chemosphere 72: 16–20.##

6-Covaci, A., Ryan,  J. J. and Schepens, P. (2002) Patterns of PCBs and PCDD/PCDFs in chicken and pork fat following a Belgian food contamination incident, Chemosphere, 47: 207–217.##

7-Covaci, A., Jorens, P. Jacquemyn, Y. and Schepens, P. (2002)Distribution of PCBs and organochlorine pesticides in umbilical cord and maternal serum, Sci.Total Environ. 298: 45-53.##

8-D’Have, H., Scheirs, J. Covaci, A.  van N.W. den Brink , Verhagen, R. and Coen, W.De (2007) Non-destructive pollution exposure assessment in the European hedgehog (Erinaceus europaeus): IV. Hair versus soil analysis in exposure and risk assessment of organochlorine compounds, Environ.  Pollut ., 145: 861-868.##

9-Dip, R., Hegglin, D. Deplazes, P. Dafflon, O. Koch, H. and Naegeli, H. (2003) Age- and sex- dependent distribution of persistent organochlorine pollutants in urban foxes, Environ. Health Persp, 111(13): 1608-1613.##

10-Flatchen, T., and Muller, P. (2005) Investigations on the contamination of red fox (Vulpes vulpes L., 1758) in the Saarland with chlorinated hydrocarbons, Z. Jagdwiss, 42: 214-225.##

11-Fuglei, E., Bustnes, J.O. Hop, H. Mørk, T. Bjornfoth, H. and Van B. Bavel, (2007) Environmental contaminants in Arctic Foxes (Alopex lagopus) in Svalbard: relationships with feeding ecology and body condition, Environ.Pollut., 146:  128-138.##

12-Gamberg, M., and Braune, B.M. (1999) Contaminant residue levels in arctic wolves (Canis lupus) from the Yukon territory, Canada Sci. Total Environ. 243/244: 329-338.##

13-Georgii, S., Bachour, G. Failing, K. Eskens, U. Elmadfa, I. and Brunn, H. (1993) Polychlorinated biphenyl congeners in foxes in Germany from 1983 to 1991, Environ. Contam. Toxicol, 26: 1-6.##

14-Giannatos, G. (2004) Conservation action plan for the golden jackal Canis aureus L. in Greece.WWF Greece.pp.1-47.##

15-Gonzalez-Barros, S. T.C., Alvarez-Piñeiro, M.E. Simal-Lozano, J. and Lage-Yusty, M.A. (2000) Organochlorine pesticides in Wolves from Galicia, Ecotoxicol. Environ. Safe., 45 :247- 252.##

16-Guruge, K.S., and Tanabe, S. (2001) Contamination by persistent organochlorines and butyltin compounds in the west coast of Sir Lanka, Mar. Pollut. Bull., 42: 179-186.##

17-Hoekstra, P.F., Braune, B.M. O’Hara, T.M. Elkin, B. Solomon,K.R. Muir, D.C.G. (2003) Organochlorine contaminant and stable isotope profiles in arctic fox (Alopex lagopus) from the Alaskan and Canadian Arctic, Environ. Pollut, 122: 423–433.##

18-Hoshil, H., Minamotot, N. Iwatas, H. Shiraki, K. Tatsukawas, R. Tanabez, S. Fujitas, S. Hirai, K. and Kinjor, T. (1997) Organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyl congenersin wild terresterial mammals and birds from chubu Region, Japan: Interspecies Comparison of the Residue Levels and Compositions, Chemosphere. 36(15): 3211-3221.##

19-Kunisue, T., Takayanagi, N. Tsubota, T. and Tanabe, S. (2007) Persistent organochlorines in raccoon dogs (Nyctereutes procyonoides) from Japan: Hepatic sequestration of oxychlordane, Chemosphere, 66: 203–211.##

20-Kunisue, T., Nakanishi, S. Watanabe, M. Abe, T. Nakatsu, S. Kawauchi, S. Sano, A. Horii, A. Kano, Y. and Tanabe, S. (2005) Contamination status and accumulation features of persistent organochlorines in pet dogs and cats from Japan, Environ. Pollut., 136: 465-476.##

21-Lifgren, H. (2005) Level of PCBs, PBDEs and pesticides in arctic fox (Alopex lagopus) from Greenland and Northern Russia, Örebro University Department of Natural Sciences Chemistry D, 10p##

22-Minh, N.H., Someya, M. Minh, T.B. Kunisue, T. Iwata, H. and Watanabe, M. (2004) Persistent organochlorine residues in human breast milk from Hanoi and Hochiminh city, Vietnam: contamination, accumulation kinetics and risk assessment for infants, Environ. Pollut, 129: 431-441.##

23-Norstrom, R.J., Belikov, S.E. Born, E.W. Garner, G.W. Malone, B. Olpinski, S. Ramsay, M.A. Schliebe, S. Stirling, I.  Stishov, M.S. Taylor, M.K. and Wiig, Ø. (1998) Chlorinated hydrocarbon contaminants in polar bears from eastern Russia, North America, Greenland, and Svalbard: Biomonitoring of Arctic Pollution, Environ.Contam. Toxicol., 35, 354–367.##

24-Shore, R.F., Casulli, A. Bologov, V. Wienburg, C.L. Afsar, A. Toyne, P. and DellOmo, G. (2001) Organochlorine pesticide, polychlorinated biphenyl and heavy metal concentrations in wolves (Canis lupus L.1758) from North-West Russia, Sci. Total Environ, 280: 45-54.##

25-Sillero-Zubiri, C., Hoffmann, M. Macdonald, D.W. (2004)Canids: foxes, wolves, jackals and dogs, Status Survey and Conservation Action Plan.156-161.##

26-Turghut, C. (2002) The contamination with organochlirine pesticides and heavy metal in surface water in Kucuk Menders River Turkey, 2000-2002, Environ.Int., 29: 29-32.##

27-Wang-Andersena, G., Utne Skaare, J. Prestrudc, P. and Steinnes, E. (1993) Levels and congener pattern of PCBs in arctic fox, Alopex lagopus, in Svalbard, Environ.Pollut, 82: 269-275.##

28-Zhou, R., Zhu, L. and Kong, Q. (2007) Persistent Chlorinared Pesticide in fish species from Qiantang River in East China, Chemosphere, 68: 838-847.##

28-Zhou, R., Zhu, L. Chen, Y. and Kong, Q. (2008) Concentration and characteristics of organochlorine pesticides in aquatic Biota from Qiantang River in China, Environ. Pollut., 151: 190-199.##