تاثیر افزودنی‏های گیاهی خارمریم و گزنه بر شاخص‏های ایمنی، فرآسنجه‎های خون و مقدار کلسترول زرده تخم‎مرغ در مرغ‏های نژاد تخمگذار

نوع مقاله: مقاله کامل

نویسندگان

1 استادیار گروه علوم دامی، دانشگاه لرستان

2 استاد گروه علوم دامی، دانشگاه لرستان

3 دانشجوی دکتری تغذیه طیور دانشگاه لرستان

چکیده

تحقیق حاضر به منظور بررسی تاثیر سطوح مختلف گیاهان خارمریم و گزنه بر شاخص‏های تولید، پارامتر‏های ایمنی و کلسترول زرده تخم‏مرغ مرغ‏های تخمگذار نژاد های‏لاین از سن 35 تا 41 هفتگی مورد اجراء قرار گرفت. آزمایش در قالب طرح کاملاً تصادفی با استفاده از پنج تیمار و شش تکرار انجام شد. تیمارها شامل شاهد و سطوح مختلف پودر خارمریم (5/0 و 5/1 درصد) و گزنه (5/0 و 5/1 درصد) بودند. نتایج نشان داد که افزودن 5/1 درصد پودر خارمریم به جیره غذایی مرغ‏های تخمگذار سبب بهبود تولید توده‏ای و ضریب تبدیل خوراک شد (05/0>p). اضافه نمودن پودر خا‎رمریم و گزنه تغییر معنی‏داری در کیفیت پوسته ایجاد نکرد. افزودن پودر خارمریم به جیره مرغ‏های تخمگذار موجب افزایش شاخص زرده تخم‏مرغ در مقایسه با شاهد شد (05/0>p). استفاده از پودر خارمریم و گزنه تاثیر معنی‏داری بر مقدار کلسترول زرده و فرآسنجه‏های خونی مرغ‏های تخمگذار نداشت. پودر خارمریم به مقدار 5/1 درصد سبب کاهش درصد هتروفیل و نسبت هتروفیل به لنفوسیت شد (05/0>p). بطور کلی می‏توان نتیجه‏گیری کرد که استفاده از پودر خارمریم در سطح 5/1 درصد در تغذیه مرغ‏های تخمگذار سبب افزایش وزن تخم‎مرغ، تولید توده‎ای، بهبود ضریب تبدیل غذایی و کاهش نسبت هتروفیل به لنفوسیت می‏شود.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Effect Of Herbal Additives Of Milk Thistle (Silybum marianum) And Nettle (Urtica dioica) On Immune System Parameters, Blood Metabolites And Egg Yolk Cholesterol In Laying Hens

نویسندگان [English]

  • B., Parizadian Kavan, 1
  • Heshmatollah Khosravinia 2
  • Razzagh Karimirad 3
  • Fateme Tavakolinasab 3
1 Assistant Professor, Department of Animal Science, Lorestan University
2 Professor, Department of Animal Science, Lorestan University
3 P.hD Student of Animal Nutrition, Lorestan University
چکیده [English]

The present study was carried out in order to investigate the effect of different levels of herbal additives of milk thistle and nettle on performance indices, immune parameters and egg yolk cholesterol. A total of 90 laying hens were randomly assigned to 5 treatment groups, 6 replicates of 3 birds each in a completely randomized design. Dietary treatments included control group and different amounts of milk thistle (0.5 and 1.5%) and nettle (0.5 and 1.5%). Results showed that adding of milk thistle (1.5%) to laying hens ration improved egg mass and feed conversion ratio (P<0.05). Using of milk thistle and nettle had not effect on shell quality. The highest yolk index was found out in the eggs from hens that were fed 1.5% of milk thistle in contrast to hens fed the control treatment without milk thistle (P<0.05). Egg yolk cholesterol amount was not affected by different levels of milk thistle and nettle powder. There were no significant differences in concentrations of glucose, triglyceride, cholesterol and HDL in plasma. Using of milk thistle (1.5%) fortified immune indices by decrease of heterophile percentage and heterophile to lymphocyte ratio (P<0.05). Therefore, it can be concluded that the supplementation of laying hens diet with milk thistle (1.5%) has positive effects on performance and immune system.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Laying hen
  • Milk thistle
  • Nettle
  • Cholesterol
  • Immune
1.Bwana, M.O., L.W. Njagi, P.N. Nyaga, P.G. Mbuthia, L.C. Bebora, M.W. Wahome, W.U. Mutinda. and P.M. Kitala. 2017. Stinging nettle and neem enhance antibody response to local killed and imported live infectious bursal disease vaccines in indigenous chicken in Kenya. Poultry Science 97:447-454.‎
2.Catoni, C.H., H.M. Schaefer. and A. Peters. 2008. Fruit for health: the effect of flavonoids on humoral immune response and food selection in a frugivorous bird. Functional Ecology 22: 644- 654.
3.Chen, H.L., D.F. Li, B.Y. Chang, L.M. Gong, J.G. Dai. and G.F. Yi. 2003. Effects of chinese herbal polysaccharides on the immunity and growth performance of young broilers. Poultry Science 82: 364-370.
4.Dharma, K., S.K. Latheef, S. Mani, H.A. Samad, K. Karthik. and R. Tiwari. 2015. Multiple beneficial applications and modes of action of herbs in poultry health and production: A review. International Journal of Pharmacology 11: 152-176.
5.Fairchild, A.S., J.L. Grimes, F.T. Jones, M.J. Wineland, F.W. Edens. and A.E. Sefton. 2001. Effects of hen age, bio-mos and flavomycin on poult susceptibility to oral Escherichia coli challenge. Poultry Science 80: 562-571.
6.Folch, J., M. Lees. and G.H. Sloane-Stanely. 1975. A simple method for the isolation and purification of total lipids from animal tissues. The Journal of Biological Chemistry 226: 497-509.
7.Gulcin, I., O.I. Kufrevioglu, M. Oktay. and M.E. Buyukokuro. 2004. Antioxidant, antimicrobial, antiulcer and analgesic activities of nettle (Urtica dioica L.). Journal of Ethnopharmacology 90: 205-215.
8.Hernandez, F., J. Madrid, V. Garcia, J. Orengo. and M.D. Megias. 2004. Influence of two plant extracts on broilers performance, digestibility and digestive organ size. Poultry Science 83: 169-174.
9.Hosseini Mansoub, N. 2011. Comparison of effects of using nettle (Urtica dioica) and probiotic on performance and serum composition of broiler chickens. Global Veterinary 6: 247-250.
10.Janz, J.A.M., P.C.H. Morel, B.H.P. Wilkinson. and R.W. Purchas. 2007. Preliminary investigation of the effects of low-level dietary inclusion of fragrant essential oils and oleoresins on pig performance and pork quality. Meat Science 75: 350-355.
11.Kong, X., Y. Hu, R. Rui, D. Wang. and X. Li. 2004. Effects of Chinese herbal medicinal ingredients on peripheral lymphocyte proliferation and serum antibody titer after vaccination in chicken. International Immunopharmacology 4: 975-982.
12.Loetscher, Y., M. Kreuzer. and R.E. Messikommer. 2013. Utility of nettle (Urtica dioica) in layer diets as a natural yellow colorant for egg yolk. Animal Feed Science and Technology 186: 158- 168.
13.Obertreis, B., K. Giller, T. Teucher, B. Benke. and H. Schmitz. 1996. Antiphlogistic effect of Urtica dioica foliaextract in comparison to caffeic malic acid. Arzneimittelforschung 46: 52-56.
14.Otles, S. and B. Yalcin. 2012. Phenolic compounds analysis of root, stalk and leaves of nettle. The Scientific World Journal 56: 43-67.
15.Qi, G.H. and J.S. Sim. 1998. Natural tocopherol enrichment and its effect in n-3 fatty acid modefied chicken eggs. Journal of AgriCultural and Food Chemistry 46:1920-1926.
16.Schalm, O.W., N.C. Jain. and G.H. Carroll. 1975. Veterinary Hematology. 3rd Edn., Lea and Febiger Co. lnc. New York. Philadelphia. pp: 180-192.
17.Scheideler, S.E. and G.W. Froning. 1996. The combined influence of dietary flax seed variety, level, form and storage conditions on egg production and composition among vitamin E-supplemented hens. Poultry Science 75: 1221-1226.
18.Sebnem, H.U., I. Saracoglu. and Y. Ogihara. 2005. Stimulation of lymphocyte proliferation and inhibition of nitric oxide production by aqueous Urtica dioica extract. Phytotherapy Research 19: 346-348.
19.Shalaei, M. and S.M. Hosseini. 2015. Effect of use purslane and milk thistle medicinal plants in the diet on enzymes activity, blood metabolites and egg characteristics of laying hens. Animal Science Journal 106: 91-102. (In Farsi).
20.Stojcic, M.D., L. Peric , A. Levart. and J. Salobir. 2016. Influence of rearing system and nettle supplementation (Urtica dioica) on the carcass traits and fatty acid composition of Redbro broilers. European Poultry Science 80:1-10.
21.Tedesco, D., S. Steidler, S. Galletti, M. Tameni, O. Sonzogni. and L. Ravarotto. 2004. Efficacy of silymarin-phospholipid complex in reducing the toxicity of aflatoxin B1 in broiler chicks. Poultry Science 83: 1839-1843.
22.Toldy, A., K. Stadler, M. Sasvari, J. Jakus, K.J. Jung, H.Y. Chung, I. Berkes, C. Nyakas. and Z. Radak. 2005. The effect of exercise and nettle supplementation on oxidative stress markers in the rat brain. Brain Research Bulletin 65: 487-493.
23.Windisch, W., K. Schedle, C. Plitzner. and A. Kroismayer. 2008. Use of phytogenetic products as feed additives for swine and poultry. Journal of Animal Science 86: 140-148.
24.Yannakopoulos, A., A. Tserveni-gousi. and E. Christaki. 2005. Enhaced egg production in practice: The case of bio-omega-3 egg. International Journal of Poultry Science 4: 531-535.
25.Yener, Z., I. Celik, F. Itham. and R. Bal. 2009. Effects of Urtica dioica L. seed on lipid peroxidation, antioxidants and liver pathology in aflatoxin-induced tissue injury in rats. Food and Chemical Toxicology 47: 418 -424.
26.Zargari, A. 1990. Medicinal plants. University of Tehran Press. 926 p. (In Farsi).