مروری بر آغاز و مدت زمان دفع ویروس‌های آنفلوانزای پرندگان در گونه‌های مختلف پرندگان

نوع مقاله: مقاله مروری

نویسندگان

1 شبکه دامپزشکی آبیک، اداره کل دامپزشکی استان قزوین، قزوین، ایران

2 موسسه تحقیقات واکسن و سرم‌سازی رازی. سازمان تحقیقات، آموزش و ترویج کشاورزی. تهران. ایران

چکیده

آنفلوآنزای پرندگان یک بیماری بسیار واگیردار با اهمیت اقتصادی و بهداشت عمومی میباشد که منشأ خسارات اقتصادی فراوان در سطح جهان می‌باشد. ویروس‌های آنفلوآنزای پرندگان بطور طبیعی تعداد زیادی از پرندگان وحشی و اهلی را درگیر می نماید. پرندگان وحشی آبزی (اردکها، غازها، و قوها) و پرندگان ساحلی به عنوان مخازن اصلی ویروسهای آنفلوانزا مطرح هستند. ویروس های آنفلوآنزا از طریق ترشحات تنفسی و مدفوع دفع می‌گردند. ویروسهای فوق حاد در بدن طیور سیستمیک شده و در گوشت طیور و تخم مرغ نیز قابل شناسایی می‌باشند. دفع ویروس یک روز بعد از تلقیح، در گوشت و سه روز بعد در تخم مرغ قابل ردیابی هستند. در مطالعات تجربی، دفع ویروسهای آنفلوانزای فوق حاد و کم حدت در مدفوع و ترشحات تنفسی یک تا دو روز بعد از تلقیح آغاز میشود و تا چندین روز ادامه می یابد که این دوره‌های دفع ویروس در پرندگان مختلف، متفاوت می‌باشد. دوره عفونت‌زایی در طیور مبتلا به ویروس‌های آنفلوآنزای کم حدت نسبت به ویروس‌های آنفلوآنزای فوق حاد، طولانی‌تر بوده و میزان دفع ویروس در آنها بیشتر می‌باشد. با توجه به مطالعات صورت گرفته در خصوص مقدار و نحوه دفع ویروس در پرندگان مختلف، عقاید متفاوتی در خصوص کارایی نمونه‌های سواب کلواک و نای جهت شناسایی ویروس‌های آنفلوآنزای کم حدت و فوق حاد وجود دارد. دفع بالاتر ویروس در کلواک نسبت به ترشحات تنفسی می‌تواند به‌دلیل تکثیر ویروس در کلیه‌ها و بورس در نتیجه عفونت عمومی باشد. در برنامه‌های مراقبت بیماری آنفلوآنزا می‌بایست از هردو نوع این نمونه‌ها بهره جست.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Review of the onset and duration of avian influenza viruses shedding in different birds species

نویسندگان [English]

  • K. Mirzaie 1
  • M.H. Fallah Mehrabadi 2
1 Qazvin Veterinary Organization, Qazvin. Iran.
2 Razi Vaccine and Serum Research Institute, Agricultural Research,Education and Extension Organization (AREEO), Tehran.Iran.
چکیده [English]

Avian influenza is a highly contagious disease with economic and public health importance, which is the cause of many economic losses in poultry industry worldwide. Influenza viruses naturally infected a large number of wild and domestic birds. Migratory wild birds (ducks, geese, and swans) and shore birds are the main reservoirs of influenza viruses. Influenza viruses are excreted through the respiratory secretions and feces. Highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses can be found in the poultry meat and the eggs. HPAI viruses can be found in meat and eggs one day and three days after inoculation, respectively. In experimental studies, the shedding of HPAI and LPAI viruses in the feces and respiratory secretions begins one or two days after inoculation and continue up to several days, which are different in different bird species. The infectious period of disease in poultry affected with LPAI viruses is longer than the HPAI viruses, and the rate of shedding is higher.Based on the conducted studies on the amount and method of the virus shedding in different birds, there are different opinions about the efficacy of cloacal and tracheal swab specimens for the detection of the LPAI and HPAI viruses. Higher shedding of the virus in the feces than respiratory secretion can be due to the proliferation of the virus in the kidneys and the bursa as a result of general infection. Both types of these specimens should be taken in influenza surveillance programs.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Avian Influenza
  • virus shedding
  • cloacal
  • tracheal
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